Using long-term data on spatially-explicit complaints, mark-recapture and dead recoveries, and habitat use information on black bears, Shelley hopes to elucidate the causes and consequences of human-bear conflicts along an anthropogenic gradient. She will assess the relative contributions of environmental drivers, urbanization, and management regulations in shaping the dynamics, interactions, and conflicts between humans and black bears in North Western New Jersey.
PhD dissertation: Shelley Spear
Funded by CSU-WCNR Doctoral Fellowship
INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE COLORADO CHECKERED WHIPTAIL
The Colorado checkered whiptail (COCW) has declined throughout most of its range as a result of urbanization and conversion of habitat to agricultural uses. Very little is known about the physiology and demography of COCW that still persist today. Given the uncertainty behind COCW population status, distribution, and the impacts of military readiness activities on their demography and stress levels, this project and its results will provide the Fort Carson Conservation Branch with an understand of how abundant COCW are within the different sub-populations, how they are distributed across the landscape, how military activity may impact individuals and populations, and the influence of such activities on COCW physiological stress and fitness. Most importantly, the proposed study will lay the foundation for the monitoring of COCW in future years and guide Fort Carson’s management of this species.
Photo Credit: Karina Kusaka
Liz McAlpine-Bellis (2018), Hannah Caracalas (2018), Rebecca Johns (2018), Janine-Rose Klein (2018), Carina Kusaka (2019), Rachael Pederson (2019), Catherine Staley (2019), Kaera Utsumi (2018-19), Julia Valdivia (2019), Nicole Walbridge (2018)
Research Scientist / Field crew leader: Dr. Douglas Eifler
Co-PI: Dr. Susannah French
Funded by the Department of Defense & US Fish and Wildlife Service
Location: Fort Carson, Colorado.
UNOBSERVED HETEROGENEITY WITHIN & ACROSS LIFE HISTORIES
Individuals are heterogeneous in many ways and can respond differently to both progressive and rapid changes to their environment, even when belonging to the same population. They may for example differ in their ontogeny, experience, physiology, and behavior. Beyond such observable heterogeneity, demographic stochasticity and unobserved sources of heterogeneity can further affect vital rates, life history outcomes, and the thus the evolution of life histories.
With efforts led by Stephanie Jenouvrier (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute), Caitlin Wells (Colorado State University) and Hal Caswell (University of Amsterdam), we are interested in i) estimating different sources of individual heterogeneity in species with contrasted life histories; ii) understanding the impact of the different sources of heterogeneity on population dynamics, fitness, and life history evolution; assessing how i & ii operate in light of climate change, where changes in the mean, variance and frequency of extreme climate events can act as selective agents.
Rachel's goal is to better understand how maternal nutritional stress affects philopatry of female pups in an asocial, hibernating mammal, the golden-mantled ground squirrel (GMGS) (Callospermophilus lateralis). She will examine hypotheses about maternal stress and philopatric behavior by measuring corticosterone concentrations in hair samples and observing dispersal behavior in a GMGS population at Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL) in Gothic, Colorado. She hypothesizes that maternal nutritional stress shapes philopatric behavior in female GMGS pups because corticosterone concentrations are used by offspring as a signal of the environmental conditions they will encounter upon emergence.
MS thesis: Rachel Kanaziz
Advisors: Kate Huyvaert, Caitlin Wells, & Lise Aubry
Location: Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Colorado
BLACK BEAR POPULATION DYNAMICS
Using a 30-year data set, PhD student Jarod Raithel is examining the degree to which black bear behavior and sport harvest have affected their recruitment, survival, abundance and human-bear conflicts over space and time. Jarod's work is based in the state of New Jersey, home to the highest density of black bears and humans in the country, which offers an ideal setting for understanding and predicting human-bear conflicts while quantifying bear population dynamics along an anthropogenic gradient.
Dr. Jarod Raithel, PhD
Funded by Nelson Farms & the USU Presidential Doctoral Fellowship
A HIBERNATOR'S RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE
We are measuring changes in life history traits in
response to climate change over a 50-year period by comparing the historical phenology
and demography of three Uinta ground squirrel ‘UGS’ populations to current-day observations along an elevation gradient. We are further investigating trade-offs between immunocompetence, growth, reproduction and
survival and how such life history decisions vary across elevation/climate niches within the context of climate change. Ultimately, we hope to predict the ability of hibernators to respond to climate change in the Western US by estimating heritable and plastic variance
in life history traits through the establishment of a detailed pedigree.
Master Thesis: Caylee Falvo
I used a 30-year study of long-lived seabirds (black-legged Kittiwakes) to study the evolution of trade-offs between early-life breeding decisions, future reproduction, and survival. Recruitment age influenced breeding success and survival trajectories. Sources of unobserved heterogeneity (frailty) further explained substantial amounts of variability in breeding success and survival. Ignoring such individual heterogeneity led to biased inference, with implications for the study of senescence in the wild.
Funded by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
CARNIVORE HARVEST MANAGEMENT
IfWhen rates of human exploitation exceed natural mortality, harvest can “add” to overall mortality and imperil sustainable management. Using ≥ 16 years of data for heavily harvested and semi-protected cougar populations in Utah, we found that uncertainty in estimates of cause-specific mortality led to biased conclusions regarding additive and compensatory mortality hypotheses. Our research reveals that carnivore studies up to now have ignored uncertainty and have likely provided management agencies with flawed managements recommendation in setting their harvest quotas.
Funded by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources
WILDLIFE-DRIVEN HABITAT DAMAGE & WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT
Using a 40-yr study of a rapidly growing population of lesser snow geese, an over-abundant herbivore that is causing extensive damage to Arctic and sub-Arctic ecosystems, we have quantified the impact of population density during early-life development. We are currently working on assessing the effect of spatio-temporal patterns in age-specific survival on population dynamics, and locate where the goose population is likely to expand and inflict more damage to their breeding, staging, and wintering grounds.